1---- the production of nuclear materials generated huge quantities of waste, good records of radioactive and chemical waste production and environmental discharges generally were not kept until the 1970s.
A Although
B Because
C If only
D Even so
E Notwithstanding
2A plantation is a long, artificially-established forest, farm or estate, ---- crops are grown for sale, often in distant markets rather than for local on-site consumption.
A how
B which
C whatever
D where
E what
3---- scientists are able to find and produce Higgs' bosons, there's still so much left unexplained that this will be just a grain of sand in a vast desert of knowledge.
A while
B in case
C if
D although
E even if
4Continually reviewed to keep pace with the current literature, this database is ---- comprehensive source of natural product information available.
A the most
B much
C more
D less
E a little
5Tanzanians have little patience when driving and in their mind any vehicle smaller than ---- is responsible for getting out the way.
A hers
B herself
C her
D himself
E theirs
6A team of researchers led by King's College London has for the first time identified a new gene ---- may have the ability to prevent HIV, from spreading after it enters the body.
A whom
B whose
C what
D which
E who
7Developments in transportation, ---- in manufacturing and agriculture, sparked American economic growth in the first half of the nineteenth century.
A including
B not so much as
C rather than
D such as
E as if
8In the history of modern medicine, ---- different medical treatments have been tried to help people with schizophrenia, but ---- have been proven effective in a series of carefully conducted scientific studies.
A some / not much
B all / very little
C more / any
D many / few
E most / all
9Foundation, a digital civil liberties group, say that courts are ---- keen to uphold patents on ideas that are ---- vague to deserve protection.
A as / as
B just / sp
C so / that
D enough / for
E too / too
10Russian President Vladimir Putin says he will pardon jailed oil tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky after ---- a decade in prison.
A except for
B apart from
C more than
D just as
E so long as
11Mogadishu is Somalia's center and ---- the reports have been coming recently, the atmosphere there isn't so safe.
A as well as
B as far as
C in that
D so that
E in case
12Around 1900 many people in the north-eastern provinces in Holland itself lived in a situation ---- slavery, as day-labourers in agriculture.
A the same as
B as regards
C according to
D similar to
E as well as
13Once he dies, nothing will stop the reforms from being rolled back, ---- they have been imposed with no lasting institutions.
A whereas
B in case
C but
D instead of
E since
14Monitoring, diagnosis, and reporting of the cloud is integral to managing the user experience for cloud-hosted business services ---- cloud consumers can proactively pinpoint the root-cause of problems, and take corrective action.
A so that
B even if
C so as to
D when
E unless
15George Eliot is usually considered the first novelist to have discussed Zionism, ---- the restoration of the Jews to Palestine, in Daniel Deronda, which was published in 1876.
A but rather
B that is
C as such
D and then
E for example
16There is no evidence that truthfulness can be inherited, ---- such tendencies are, presumably, culturally determined.
A but
B even if
C so
D although
E as if
17The successful underestimate the extent ---- they owe their wealth to luck rather than skill, which leads them to demand more respect than is their due, and to disrespect others.
A to which
B as
C in case
D of whom
E as if
18Plastics cannot be used in practical applications ---- they are protected by several additives such as antioxidants, UV absorbers and light stabilizers.
A but
B if
C whereas
D whether
19---- most people say that outward beauty doesn't matter to them, generally most people value beauty in a potential partner.
A When
B Though
C Because
D In case
E If
20Students should bring a certain skepticism to whatever they study, and they should question what they are taught ---- accepting it passively.
A instead of
B due to
C on behalf of
D with regard to
E in order to
21An estuary is a partially enclosed body of water ---- incoming seawater is mixed with fresh water coming from the land.
A which
B wherever
C where
D how
E whether
22---- I graduate from high school, I am planning to study clothing design.
A Since
B Unless
C So that
D Even when
E After
23The muscles used in facial expression are unique ---- they are attached to various parts of the facial skin.
A although
B however
C in that
D owing to
E unlike
24---- one compares the maps of Europe in 1989 and 1999, the one can see the results of an extraordinary decade of change.
A If
B Until
C Before
D Unless
E In spite of
25The Lenni Lenape Indians, ---- descendants now live in New Jersey, have an incredible oral traditions that describes their trek from central Asia nearly 10,000 years ago.
A who
B whom
C that
D whose
E which
26The digital revolution in scientific publishing is now under way, ---- the endpoint is far from clear.
A so
B but
C for
D or
E as
27---- effective antibiotic intervention and strong supportive care, the mortality in patients with severe sepsis remains at unacceptable levels.
A Despite
B Though
C On the grounds that
D Due to
E The fact that
28---- there is no known cure for Alzheimer, there are several drug treatments that may improve symptoms and care strategies ---- can reduce behavioural problems.
A Though / of which
B While / that
C Even so / therefore
D Because / which
E On the whole / ----
29The parents inquired desperately ---- there was a way doctors could cure their daughter’s life threatening illness.
A once again
B in fact
C that
D if
E unless
30---- physicians ---- patients will probably find it hard to adapt to the new medical system.
A Neither / or
B Hardly / when
C Both / and
D Whether / or
E Either / nor
31Thanks to advances in medicine, polio epidemics, ---- dreaded events, are now mentioned only in history books.
A as soon as
B while
C therefore
D meanwhile
E once
32---- taken seriously and treated properly, the common cold is likely to develop into a perilous disease.
A In the meantime
B Even so
C Provided
D Unless
E Until
33---- the widespread use of the antibiotics and vaccines, communicable diseases can now be effectively controlled in many parts of the world.
A In spite
B Despite
C Through
D Seeing as
E Whereas
34About 29 percent of the U.S. population has hypertension, ---- many sufferers are unaware of their condition.
A because
B though
C just then
D even if
E despite
35Women experience depression twice as often as men, ---- men are more likely to commit suicide as a result of depression.
A because
B if
C for
D contrary to
E although
36---- the fact that many countries have over-fished for decades, fish stocks are dangerously low in many areas.
A Owing to
B Despite
C Because
D Therefore
E When
37---- provide more grazing land for cattle, considerable acres of rainforest are destroyed every year.
A Owing to the fact that
B In contrast to
C With respect to
D In order
E So as to
38---- many times you practice this piece of music on the piano, you are sure to fail to master it, honey.
A No matter
B Although
C Even if
D However
E Much as
39The intrusion into the privacy of others by the unjust press ---- news ---- entertainment. Nevertheless, they act as if they possess this right.
A either / or
B not only / but also
C whether / or
D neither / nor
E both / and
40A diet must always be kept to ---- you want to end up with a waste of time.
A unless
B otherwise
C provided that
D moreover
E without regard to
41Reading in poor light strains the eyes, ---- it is best to do it in a well-lit place ---- avoid injury.
A moreover / due to
B therefore / in case
C otherwise / because of
D so / in order
E thus / so as to
42Today, new fields of engineering are continually emerging ---- scientific and technological breakthroughs.
A instead of
B as a result of
C with regard to
D rather than
E moreover
43In some countries voting is compulsory, but in others, ---- you vote ---- stay at home on election day is a matter of personal choice.
A either / or
B whether / or
C when / while
D neither / nor
E hardly / when
44In Hawaii, the cost of living is so high, and the average wage so low, that most people have more than one job; ---- , they would not be able to get by.
A Furthermore
B similarly
C otherwise
D in order that
E on the contrary
45---- the rapidly growing size of the global human population, there is increased destruction of natural habitats.
A Instead of
B No matter
C Because
D Therefore
E Owing to
46Fishing for certain species of fish is often seasonal, ---- many modern fishing boats are designed to operate using two or more different fishing methods.
A whereas
B whenever
C owing to
D however
E so
47The philosopher Thomas Hobbes believed man was nasty and violent, ---- the philosopher John Locke saw him as rational and reasonable.
A by the time
B whereas
C in order that
D moreover
E despite
48As Saudi Arabia has ---- high rainfall ---- any major rivers, it has to convert seawater into fresh drinking water to supply the needs of its inhabitants.
A either / or
B both / and
C neither / nor
D not only / but also
E whether / or
49---- people all around the world desire to get rich quickly without thinking of the consequences, the, environment of the planet is being seriously damaged.
A In spite of
B Since
C No matter
D Besides
E On account of
50The 15th- to 17th-century Flemish artists tried to paint accurate pictures of what they saw; the 19th-century Impressionists, ---- , were mainly concerned with colours.
A what is more
B therefore
C inasmuch as
D on the other hand
E in order that
51---- a great deal more information about Mars has been obtained will It be possible to plan a manned trip to this planet.
A Even though
B Ever since
C Provided
D Hardly ever
E Only when
52Since 1960, astronomers have attempted more than six dozen radio searches for ---- might be interpreted as a "hello-there" signal.
A what
B which
C whom
D whose
E that
53---- recent problems with processing, alfalfa-sprout production has grown remarkably in the past three decades and now accounts for about 7 percent of the total U.S. alfalfa-seed supply.
A Though
B When
C Despite
D As
E Now that
54Cahokia was the largest and most cosmopolitan city ever to exist in the territory that was to become the United States, ---- most of us have never heard of it.
A so
B for
C as
D but
E or
55Even decades after the founding of the royal observatories, the astronomers were not making much progress on the longitude problem, and ---- lives and valuable cargoes continued to be lost to shipwreck.
A however
B meanwhile
C otherwise
D even so
E in contrast
56---- experts can discover, painting is one of the world's oldest art forms , examples of which in French cave-dwelling societies date back to around 30,000 BCE.
A Despite the fact that
B Apart from
C As much as
D As far as
E Unlike
57The cost of institutional care for an older or a disabled person is huge, absolutely immense, ---- women who are looking after people in their own home are providing an enormous service for society.
A even if
B because
C while
D though
E so
58Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy in ---- students learn about a subject through the experience of problem solving.
A which
B that
C them
D where
E whom
59---- over-fishing, other factors play a part in the diminishing stocks of commercial fish species.
A As well
B In addition to
C Instead
D Though
E Because of
60The machine gun, ---- was feared for its rapid fire, intimidated every soldier on the battlefield.
A that
B whose
C where
D of which
E which
61Up until the middle of the 19th, century the brain could be studied ---- it was damaged.
A just before
B even when
C even so
D only after
E as though
62The laser is a device that produces a beam of light that is ---- scientifically ---- practically of great use.
A neither / nor
B not / just
C hardly / when
D whether / or
E both / and
63---- we got to Sydney airport, it was 3.30 AM , and we had to wait half an hour for an available taxi to the city.
A Until
B While
C Just in case
D By the time
E Afterwards
64---- human activity has grown into a global ecological force, traditional ecological theory does not provide good ways of understanding systems dominated by human activity.
A Despite
B Contrary to
C Now that
D In case
E Hence
65Europe's significance in the world stems ---- from its size ---- its influence, its history, and its relative prosperity.
A as / as
B not / but
C such / as
D so / that
E rather / than
66The children would have had the exact same outcome ---- they had never had your special math training program.
A even if
B provided
C after
D so
E as
67Literature is associated with books and reading, but there was a time ---- there were almost no books ---- there were no printing presses.
A after / although
B though / if
C since / due to
D whereas / or
E when / because
68The earliest lamps were shells or saucer-shaped pieces of stone ---- held oil or animal fat with crude wicks of vegetable fibre.
A that
B of which
C whereby
D whose
E some of whom
69Birds have been kept as pets by royalty for thousands of years. ---- , only fairly recently have so many birds been available to the public.
A Moreover
B Therefore
C On the contrary
D However
E Even though
70Introspective reports are used as sources of information about other minds ---- in everyday life ---- in science.
A either / nor
B neither / or
C not only / but also
D both / but
E so much / as
71The swallow, a nice bird, couldn’t soar into the sky ---- the fact that it had broken its wing.
A since
B inasmuch as
C on account of
D much as
E despite
72At a rapid rate, much of the world is coming online and individuals are connecting with each other ---- the physical distance that separates them.
A in this respect
B as a result
C instead of
D on account of
E regardless of
73---- nicotine ---- the tobacco plant are named for Jean Nicot, a French ambassador who sent tobacco from Portugal to Paris in 1560.
A So / that
B As / as
C Whether / or
D More / than
E Both / and
74---- not smoking, the smoker has too much acetylcholine and becomes nervous, hypersensitive, and anxious.
A After
B So
C As
D When
E Lest
75---- political assassination is a terrorist act depends on its association with a broader program of political violence.
A If
B Whether
C Since
D How
E Only if
76Twice during the 20th century Tokyo was nearly destroyed, ---- the tragic earthquake and fire of 1923 and a second time after the incendiary-bomb air raids of World War II.
A even so
B no matter
C only if
D once after
E otherwise
77---- the study was conducted through a web-based survey, participants were able to complete the surveys on their own time.
A Although
B Since
C If
D For
E When
78---- a method has been developed, it must be formally documented into a final analytical testing procedure.
A Even so
B Even if
C Once
D Since
E While
79The zookeepers have to approach some savage animals with extreme caution, ---- they are very dangerous.
A this being the case
B that is why
C even so
D on grounds of
E for
80Viruses can't metabolize nutrients, produce and excrete wastes, move around on their own, or even reproduce ---- they are inside another organism's cells.
A unless
B if
C as soon as
D however
E so as
81High-performance work systems should be periodically evaluated ---- new organizational priorities and initiatives.
A as of
B in terms of
C regardless of
D instead of
E because of
82It has been found that the method does not work well ---- it has relatively low sensitivity to developing faults.
A so that
B despite
C as
D until
E due to
83Today's cameras have automatic devices that relieve the picture taker of any thoughts ---- concentrating on his or her subject.
A other than
B no matter
C whereas
D in case
E however
84Minerals always have the same composition and structure ---- they are found, ---- rocks are usually made up of a mixture of minerals that is dependent on their locations.
A however / since
B even if / despite
C wherever / while
D how / unless
E in case / therefore
85You are free to express your feelings freely in a democratic society; ---- , saying whatever you want in public can have dangerous consequence.
A as a result
B on the contrary
C in contrast to
D to the contrary
E on the other hand
86---- to the right to artistic expression, the censorship committee banned the film.
A As far as
B On behalf
C In addition
D Without regard
E As a matter of fact
87Candidates for the doctoral program must take a test; ----, masters candidates must submit a five-page report.
A likewise
B unless
C because
D otherwise
E due to
88---- Hitler's role in history, few subjects have ---- been so controversially regarded.
A Owing to / such
B In terms of / ever
C Due to / so that
D However / so far
E In relation to / also
89The feathery antennae on a moth are very delicate sensing organs; ---- , the moth has a very advanced way of avoiding predators.
A however
B in addition to
C in which case
D on the contrary
E in other words
90---- this actor used to work as a nurse in real life helps him get into character better in the soap opera, in which he plays a doctor.
A Much as
B In spite of
C The fact that
D Inasmuch as
E Regardless of
91Wind patterns are quite unpredictable at high altitudes; ---- , you should never fly over the mountains in a small plane during a snowstorm.
A whereby
B seeing as
C in which case
D for this reason
E on the other hand
92People think that those with bad memories lack intelligence; ---- , forgetfulness is related to a stressful lifestyle.
A because of
B inasmuch as
C on the contrary
D in order that
E on the other hand
93---- what my conservative brother wears, my clothes reflect my commitment to the hip hop movement.
A Unlike
B Thus
C Though
D So as to
E In contrast
94Even a worm will turn; that is to say, even the most humble will strike back ---- mistreated beyond a certain point.
A while
B unless
C such as
D if
E as though
95---- political tensions easing in Lebanon, archaeologists have finally managed to locate the sites of ancient Phoenician harbours.
A Despite
B Thanks to
C Although
D Because
E Nevertheless
96The company were desperately trying to find someone good enough to take the managing director's place; ---- , the police tried to determine whether he had fallen from the boat by accident, or if he had been pushed.
A in the meantime
B as well as
C in addition to
D all the same
E on the contrary
97Scientists say that the threat of an ozone hole is greater in the Northern Hemisphere ---- it is more heavily populated.
A until
B in case
C if
D because
E unless
98At a rapid rate, much of the world is coming online and individuals are connecting with each other ---- the physical distance that separates them.
A in this respect
B as a result
C regardless of
D instead of
E on account of
99Birds have been kept as pets by royalty for thousands of years. ---- , only fairly recently have so many birds been available to the public.
A Moreover
B Therefore
C On the contrary
D Even though
E However
100---- plants, which manufacture their own food, animals get the energy they need by eating things.
A Similar to
B Rather than
C Apart from
D In contrast to
E Instead of