1When ---- research findings, it is helpful to think about the ways in which the research ----.
A discussed / conducted
B to discuss / is conducted
C discussing / was conducted
D being discussed / can be conducted
E having discussed / will be conducted
2If the coronary arteries --- hardened and narrow, the person ---- sharp chest pains, commonly called angina.
A became / felt
B have become / would feel
C may become / will feel
D become / may feel
E had become / could feel
3----- you can prove that you are the most capable will you be put in charge of such a risky task.
A Even though
B Provided that
C Unless
D Regardless of
E Only if
4Historians --- that the first abacus ---- of a shallow tray filled with fine sand or dust.
A think / consisted
B thought / consists
C would think / has consisted
D will think / may consist
E can think / is consisting
5A person who ---- a great deal of blood ---- a transfusion, in which blood from an outer source is introduced into the veins.
A loses / underwent
B lost / has undergone
C will lose / may undergo
D has lost / can undergo
E had lost / underwent
6With the largest ships and the most powerful fleet in the world, the Chinese ---- all the oceans of the World, but for various reasons, the government ---- the expeditions and prohibited ocean navigation.
A will have explored / has ended
B had been exploring / had ended
C must be exploring / could end
D could explore / would be ending
E could have explored / ended
7Studies ---- that our human senses perceive or take in far more information or data than our nervous systems ---- or pay attention to.
A show / had processed
B will show / may process
C showed / could process
D have shown / can process
E would show / have processed
8His decision to step down after the 2008 Beijing Olympics ---- by the intensity of personal criticism ---- at him.
A has been hastened / to direct
B had been hastened / to be directed
C would be hastened / direct
D may have been hastened / directed
E must be hastened / having directed
9----- my appeal ----- by the college, I will be able to resit the examination in July.
A Should / be approved
B Will / be approved
C Had / been approved
D Could / be approved
E Were / to be approved
10High-income countries are rich ---- theirs were the first economies to be transformed by the Industrial Revolution more than two centuries ago, increasing their productive capacity 100-fold.
A because
B although
C before
D so that
E therefore
11Now the consensus is that nations ---- clear objectives and approval from the world community if they ---- a war successfully.
A had had / were to wage
B could have / would wage
C must have / could wage
D has had / had waged
E should have / are to wage
12Reasoning ---- as the process by which people systematically ---- different arguments and, after consideration, arrive at a conclusion by choosing one.
A will be described / developed
B has described / have developed
C could be described / develop
D is described / had developed
E may be described / are developed
13The pattern of wrinkles on the face ---- in part on the manner in which the skin ---- and stretched by the facial muscles to form certain expressions.
A depends / has been pulled
B depended / was pulled
C will depend / is pulled
D may depend / would be pulled
E had depended / could pull
14In the United States, about 75 percent of the total tomato crop ----- into juice, canned tomatoes, sauces, pastes, and ketchup.
A processes
B is processed
C used to process
D have been processed
E will be processing
15In August environmentalists in the Philippines ---- a field of Golden Rice, an experimental grain whose genes ---- to carry beta-carotene, a chemical precursor of vitamin A.
A had vandalised / have been modified
B vandalise / would be modified
C vandalised / had been modified
D have vandalised / are modified
E will be vandalising / may be modified
16Societies ---- as layered by norms which ---- virtually all human activities, and deviance is the violation of these norms along with the recognition and labelling of such violations.
A are seen / had been guiding
B would be seen / will guide
C were seen / could be guiding
D should be seen / were guiding
E may be seen / guide
17In a Europe of knowledge, we cannot accept situations where some people have access to knowledge ---- others are excluded.
A if
B after
C unless
D yet
E while
18Because suffrage ---- so late, few people ---- the emergence during the 1970s of women’s movements that were important in destabilizing military regimes.
A come / predicted
B has come / had predicted
C came / would have predicted
D had come / may predict
E would come / have predicted
19Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget ---- a lifetime studying how children learn, and he identified three stages that children ---- as they grow and develop.
A had spent / went through
B spent / go through
C spends / will go through
D has spent / have gone through
E was spending / may go through
20Studies have shown that the skin plays a key role ---- the body's processing ---- drugs and other chemicals and in the functioning of the immune system.
A for / with
B by / to
C at / in
D in / of
E as / into
21The area now ---- France ---- by the Roman general Julius Caesar in 51 BC.
A to be called / has been conquered
B called / was conquered
C calling / had been conquered
D to have been called / is conquered
E to call / would be conquered
22Dentures, a set of replacement teeth, ---- when all or a large part of the teeth ----.
A were used / will be replaced
B had been / was replaced
C are used / must be replaced
D should be used / would be replaced
E may be used / had been replaced
23Experts say a final deal ---- Iran to abandon the Arak reactor and close its Fordow enrichment site, which ---- deep beneath a mountain and thus very hard to bomb.
A will have to require / is buried
B had required / was buried
C has been requiring / was being buried
D may have required / has buried
E requires / will have buried
24Although Latin America ---- close to the United States in geographical terms, the differences in political, racial, and economic structures ---- the development of different sorts of feminist concerns.
A was / may be influenced
B has been / would be influenced
C had been / was influenced
D is / have influenced
E could be / may influence
25An electrocardiogram, better known ---- an EKG or ECG, is a common test doctors use to obtain information ---- the overall health of a patient’s heart.
A for / to
B in / by
C with / over
D into / from
E as / about
26Social scientists disagree among themselves as to the nature of many problems and the desired solutions, ---- most share a belief that better knowledge will enable society to deal with its problems more effectively.
A but
B as
C therefore
D in that
E if
27Human gene therapy is the source of great controversy among scientists ---- non-scientists ----.
A neither / nor
B and / alike
C either / or
D both / and
E not only / but also
28Antidepressants ---- to relieve obsessive thoughts and subsequent compulsive behaviours in those who ---- obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
A were used / would have
B have been used / should have
C are used / have
D will be used / had had
E were using / had to have
29The theory that continents ----- laterally with respect to each other ----- highly revolutionary when it was first proposed
A moved / has considered
B had moved / considered
C will move / had considered
D move / was considered
E are moving / might be considered
30Scientists ---- a variety of ways in which genes ---- to produce cells that can do things they could not do before.
A were exploring / have been modified
B have been exploring / modified
C will explore / must have been modified
D are exploring / can be modified
E explored / had been modified
31Though there ---- scientific experiments before, it ---- Guglielmo Marconi who was the first to use electromagnetic waves as a means of communication.
A have been / is
B were / has been
C had been / was
D are / had been
E would be / should be
32From ancient times through the 1800s, scientists believed that plants and animals sparked to life as tiny ---- fully formed versions of adult organisms.
A in spite of
B even when
C on the contrary
D unless
E but otherwise
33Many governments ---- research to determine which species of animals or plants ---- as sentinels or lookouts for particular environmental contaminants
A are conducting / can act
B were conducting / have acted
C have been conducting / are acted
D conducted / should have acted
E could conduct / will have been acting
34The magnetic force present in an object seems ---- in two distinct regions of the objects ---- as poles
A being located / to know
B having located / to have known
C to locate / knowing
D be located / to be known
E to be located / known
35---- the kidneys are damaged and do not properly filter waste products from your blood, excess fluid and chemicals build up in your body.
A Unless
B When
C Though
D By the time
E Just before
36---- the living standards of older people have generally been rising in recent years, there are wide differences across countries.
A Now that
B Even though
C As long as
D Therefore
E Because of
37----- modern medicine has many obvious strengths, it also has equally obvious shortcomings in a number of chronic degenerative diseases.
A Though
B Because
C Just in case
D Now that
E Provided
38Nerves and muscles usually work together so smoothly ---- we don’t even realize ---- is happening.
A which / who
B when / why
C that / what
D whose / how
E whom / where
39Plato’s foundation of the Academy ---- the merest beginnings of his influence on subsequent generations, which ---- to be immeasurable
A represented / would continue
B will represent / continued
C could represent / had continued
D has represented / will have continued
E represents / continues
40The Ottoman “hamam” ---- the attention of many people because it ---- mysterious and an integral part of eastern culture.
A attracted / would be
B used to attract / has been
C has captured / was
D is attracting / had been
E was capturing / is
41Depression ---- by stressful life events, other illnesses, certain drugs or medications, or inherited traits.
A may be triggered
B had been triggering
C should be triggered
D will have to trigger
E was supposed to trigger
42Research devoted to the history of working-class seaside resorts ---- particularly productive and ---- us better understand why we should pay attention to how tourism relates to different class interests.
A had been / helped
B has been / can help
C was / could be helped
D could have been / had helped
E must be / would be helping
43Organic farming is the process by which crops are raised ---- only natural methods soil fertility and to control pests.
A to use / maintain
B using / to maintain
C use / maintaining
D used / maintained
E to be used / having maintained
44It ---- that as long ago as 1809, Swiss botanist Augustin Pyrame de Candolle observed the growth of a plant toward the light and stated that it ---- by an unequal growth on only one part of the plant.
A was known / caused
B knows / is caused
C is known / was caused
D has known / will cause
E knew / had caused
45It was ---- in the second half of the 20th century ---- scientists truly began to understand and appreciate the sophistication and complexity of inheritance.
A yet / when
B still / for
C but / as
D only / that
E since / during
46Heat therapy ---- after active swelling of an injury ---- , usually within 24 to 48 hours.
A will be used / stopped
B has been used / was stopped
C was used / is stopped
D must be used / could be stopped
E may be used / has stopped
47By the early 1990s Stephen King's books ----- more than 100 million copies worldwide, and his name ----- synonymous with the genre of horror fiction.
A had sold / had become
B has sold / became
C are sold / would become
D would be sold / becomes
E were sold / will become
48Though there is no cure as yet for AIDS, scientists ---- drugs that ---- the spread of HIV once it gets into a person’s body.
A had discovered / slow down
B would discover / slowed down
C have discovered / can slow down
D may be discovered / can slow down
E are discovering / have slowed down
49Since revelations ---- about the extent of the spying activities being undertaken by intelligence agencies on both sides of the Atlantic, tech giants in Silicon Valley and elsewhere ---- themselves in an awkward position.
A surfaced / have found
B will surface / found
C had surfaced / were found
D may surface / should find
E are surfacing / find
50---- their size, protozoa are well known for their diversity and the fact that they have evolved under so many different conditions.
A Although
B Whatever
C Because
D When
E As soon as
51---- the many different signs and symptoms of diseases, a medical history and physical examination do not always allow an accurate diagnosis.
A Though
B However
C After
D Even if
E Because of
52The British and Soviets ---- Iranian politics until the early 1950s, but the United States ---- to alter the role of the two competing powers in Iran after the 1953 military coup.
A have dominated / had begun
B would dominate / was beginning
C are dominating / would begin
D had dominated / began
E dominate / should begin
53American behavioural psychologist B. F. Skinner ---- experiments during the 1930s and 1940s to prove that human and animal behaviour ---- not on independent motivation but on response to reward and punishment
A conduct /were based
B had conducted / based
C would conduct / had based
D conducted / is based
E should conduct / might base
54The legendary pop star is reported ---- for the murder of a woman ---- dead in his home.
A to arrest / having founded
B to be arrested / was found
C to have been arrested / found
D having been arrested / to be found
E arresting / being found
55Theories ---- of constructs that ---- together in some logical way.
A composed / linked
B are composed / are linked
C were composed / could be linked
D have composed / link
E may be composed / had linked
56Individuals with pernicious anaemia must be given vitamin B12 by injection, ---- they cannot absorb it through the normal processes of digestion.
A since
B before
C when
D until
E as soon as
57Although the Stoics gave birth to the formal concept “Natural Law,” they ---- responsible for the long-standing impact that it ---- on moral and political philosophy over the next two millennia.
A were not / would have
B had not been / will have
C will not be / had
D have not been / must have
E could not be / has had
58The last representatives of the dinosaurs became extinct about 65 million years ago, ---- being the dominant large animals of Earth for more than 250 million years.
A until
B when
C after
D so
E but
59Sterilization ---- permanent protection against pregnancy but ---- only by people who are absolutely sure that they do not want any or any more children.
A provided / had been used
B has provided / was used
C may provide / could have used
D provides / should be used
E must have provided / is used
60Since smaller particles stick together ---- wet, soil with a lot of clay holds water well, ---- drains poorly.
A after / so
B until / if
C if only / after
D yet / for
E when / but
61Evidence ---- to light suggesting that ours ---- the only solar system in the galaxy.
A had come / should not be
B will come / could not be
C may come / has not been
D has come / may not be
E is coming / had not been
62The Silk Roads grew in importance late in the first millennium BC, ---- major agrarian empires began muscling in on them from the south, west, and east.
A during
B when
C only if
D though
E as if
63A study ---- to have internal validity if the researcher ---- relatively confident that changes in the independent variable caused changes in the dependent variable.
A was said / must be
B is said / can be
C had said / could be
D will be said / had been
E has said / was
64Bladder cancer is usually curable if ----while the cancer is still contained in the bladder, and 74% of bladder cancers ---- at this early stage.
A will be diagnosed / diagnose
B could be diagnosed / diagnosed
C has been diagnosed / were diagnosed
D was diagnosed / may diagnose
E diagnosed / are diagnosed
65Although the word telegraph ---- with sending messages by means of an electric current, it ---- originally to describe a visual system for sending coded messages.
A is associated / was used
B was associated / used
C may be associated / uses
D can be associated / had been used
E associated / is used
66In the late 1500s, near the height of the Ottoman Turkish empire, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent set out with a giant army to conquer ---- of Europe ---- he could.
A most / so
B some / after
C as much / as
D neither / nor
E all / for
67Beginning in the 1960s and 1970s, scientists ---- they ---- clones of various plants and animals by artificially dividing embryonic cells very early in their development.
A had found / created
B would find / create
C must find / were creating
D found / could create
E have found / have created
68The major tranquilizers were first developed in the very early 1950s when scientists ---- that the organic compound called phenothiazine had a strong sedative effect, ---- it calmed or relaxed the person taking it.
A had discovered / mean
B discovered / meaning
C would discover / to mean
D may discover / meant
E were discovered / to be meant
69---- the world, ---- wars, genocides, conflicts and disasters, people are compelled to leave their homes.
A Throughout / through
B Beyond / between
C Upon / beneath
D Among / underneath
E Over / into
70Even though the threat of war between the superpowers ---- present during the Cold War, the existence of the socialist bloc and ideology reduced the competitive pressures which ---- nations-states to war during the first half of the century.
A is / have driven
B has been / drove
C was / had driven
D must be / drive
E can be / are driving
71Astronomers analysing Magellan’s data ---- that about 500 to 800 million years ago, lava surfaced and covered the entire planet, ---- it a fresh, new face.
A had concluded / to give
B have concluded / giving
C may conclude / to be given
D will conclude / be given
E concluded / having given
72Television viewers in South Africa ----advertisements ---- them to be frugal with electricity during the peak evening hours.
A will become used to / to ask
B had become used to / asked
C became used to / to be asked
D have become used to / asking
E would become used to / ask
73Ray was the author of numerous short stories and novellas, and in fact writing, ---- film-making, became his main source of income.
A because of
B by the time
C in terms of
D until
E rather than
74Throughout history Bodrum, known as Halicarnassos in ancient times, ---- always ---- over and people have been unwilling to share its beauty with others.
A has / been fought
B had / been fighting
C will have / been fought
D may have / been fought
E must have / been fighting
75Lions are unique among cats ---- they live in a group, or pride.
A as for
B in that
C in case
D until
E thanks to
76The Pleistocene Epoch is best known as a time ---- extensive ice sheets and other glaciers formed repeatedly on the landmasses and has been informally referred to as the “Great Ice Age.”
A whom
B the fact that
C during which
D from whose
E in what
77---- with studies in the 1950s, a much better chronology and record of Pleistocene climatic events ---- through analyses of deep-sea sediments.
A To begin / had evolved
B Having begun / evolved
C Beginning / have evolved
D To have begun / would evolve
E Begin / have been evolving
78---- the last two decades of the twentieth century nonviolent revolutions became a major trend ---- eastern and central Europe.
A Under / into
B From / with
C For / at
D During / throughout
E During / by
79Although the continuous development of capitalism as a system ---- only from the 16th century, antecedents of capitalist institutions ---- in the ancient world.
A dated / exist
B has dated / has existed
C had dated / could exist
D might date / should exist
E dates / existed
80Coordination between sociology and the history of religions is not usually very close, ---- the two disciplines operate as separate departments in most universities and often in different faculties.
A because
B so
C when
D but
E otherwise
81While secularism ---- to western thinkers such as Socrates, Baruch Spinoza, Thomas Jefferson and other thinkers, secularism clearly ---- a highly-disputed issue around the world.
A attributed / remained
B was attributed / will remain
C is attributed / remains
D had attributed / has attributed
E could attribute / can attribute
82If you abide by a decision, you ---- it and comply with it, even though you ---- with it.
A accept / might disagree
B accepted / disagreed
C have accepted / will disagree
D will accept / had disagreed
E should accept / must disagree
83Some scientists say that the dinosaurs died out ---- a comet hit the earth and caused a nuclear winter.
A when
B so long as
C unless
D if
E during
84The ancient city of Hierapolis, the original site of Pamukkale, was known as Holy City in archaeological literature ---- the abundance of temples and other religious structures in the area.
A despite
B because of
C although
D during
E now that
85Safranbolu is a town boasting a glorious collection of old Ottoman houses, ---- a rich collection ---- pieces of art which represent traditional Turkish life and culture.
A for / in
B to / by
C over / for
D with / of
E at / on
86Byzantines ---- their power in Anatolian region after they ---- by the Seljuk Ruler Alpaslan at Malazgirt in 1071.
A was losing / had defeated
B had lost / defeated
C would lose / may defeat
D could lose / are defeated
E lost / were defeated
87If one ---- that the most scenic vistas in Anatolia can be found on the coasts of the Aegean, he ---- of exaggerating.
A were to claim / could not be accused
B had claimed / had not been accused
C would claim / will not be accused
D has claimed / should not have accused
E could claim / would not have accused
88Until recently, it ---- the conventional wisdom that nationalism ---- on the world stage in Western Europe around the end of the eighteenth century.
A is / has arrived
B has been / arrives
C was / arrived
D can be / had arrived
E had been / may arrive
89In a blow to women's rights, the Kuwaiti parliament ---- to pass legislation that ----women the right to vote and run for office in municipal elections.
A would fail / may give
B has failed / would have given
C had failed / could give
D could fail / had given
E failed / would be given
90The European Parliament’s latest decision ---- a serious blow to EU Commission efforts ---- direct trade with Turkish Cyprus to ease the economic embargo on the northern part of the island.
A has dealt / to enable
B was dealt / enabled
C will be dealt / enabling
D had dealt / enable
E dealt / to be enabled
91Galileo’s discovery of millions of new stars suggested that the universe ---- much larger than ---- .
A can be / has been supposed
B has been / will be supposed
C had been / may be supposed
D was / is being supposed
E might be / had been supposed
92The tsunami ---- the demise of the six aboriginal tribes living on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands who until now ----virtually no contact with the outside world.
A will hasten / had had
B could hasten / will have had
C is hastening / is having
D should hasten / would have
E may hasten / have had
93When you ---- in a country for long enough, it’s easy ---- the things that set it apart and really make it special.
A lived / forgetting
B had lived / forget
C would live / having forgotten
D live / to forget
E are living / to be forgetting
94The astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus boldly claimed that the Earth ---- on its axis daily and revolves around the sun annually rather than ---- in the center of the cosmos.
A rotated / fixed
B had rotated / fixing
C rotates / being fixed
D would rotate / having fixed
E could be rotating / to be fixed
95While ----- the chemistry of the human body, Dr. Rosalyn Yalow won a Nobel Prize for the research she ----- on the role of hormones.
A to study / to conduct
B to be studied / conduct
C studying / conducted
D having studied / to be conducted
E being studied / conducting
96Up until the middle of the 19th , century the brain could be studied ----- it was damaged.
A only after
B just before
C even when
D even so
E as though
97The economy of modern Kuwait ----- almost totally on petroleum, which ----- roughly 80% of government revenues.
A was based / is provided
B will be based / provided
C had been based / was providing
D is based / provides
E would be based / was provided
98---- some tension did rise during yesterday’s meeting, most members remained calm.
A Even if
B No sooner
C Now that
D Not only
E Though
99Although having cancer ---- great pain this does not mean you ---- with pain.
A caused / had had to live
B can cause / have to live
C had cause / would have to live
D causes / should have had to live
E would cause / might have had to use
100The commercialization of sports, driven by the fantastic amounts of money ---- by advertising on televised events, ---- international stars such as boxing wit Mohammad Ali and soccer phenomenon David Beckham.
A producing / had created
B produced / has created
C to be produced / created
D being produced / will produce
E produce / could produce